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Basic's and more things you should know or at least have access to!


Testing and what it means to the hobbyist
--------------------------------------------
pH
In soft water conditions the pH can rise rapidly to more than 9.0 on the scale.
Strong plant growth can be a cause of this condition.
Over planted aquariums can raise the pH because the plants rob the water of too much carbon dioxide;
as a result calcium bicarbonate, which usually buffers the pH is converted to insoluble calcium carbonate.

The sign and symptoms could be excessive plant growth in the aquarium,
the fish exhibit signs of corroding of fins and gills, also milky appearance of the skin.

Check the pH often and correct by water changes and or buffering as required,
especially if your water is on the soft side.

pH Readings and what they mean:

14| --------------------
|
13|
|
12| fatal to plants and animals
|
10|
| suited to only a very few specialized species
9 |--------------------
| harmful to most animals and plants, favorable to some
8 |
|
7 |favorable to most plants and animals and fish
|
6 |suitable for most plants and animals from the tropical rain forest
|
5 |--------------------
|harmful to most plants and animals
4 |
|
3 |Fatal to plants and animals
|
2 |
|
1 |--------------------

 

Water hardness

very soft water 0-4 DH
soft water 5-8 DH
medium hard 9-12 DH
fairly hard 13-18 DH
hard 19-30 DH
very hard above 30 DH

Tank volume
in liters

length * width * height
(in cm)
-----------------------
1000

note:
To convert liters to US gallons
multiply liters * 0.2642

To calculate heater requirements

| number of degrees the tank temp will be raised above
tank | above average room temperature given in centigrade.
in ------------------------------------------------------
liters| 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 10 12
------|-----------------------------------------------------
10 | 1 3 4 5 7 8 10 11 14 17
20 | 2 4 6 9 11 13 15 17 22 26
40 | 3 7 10 14 17 20 24 28 35 42
60 | 4 9 13 18 22 27 31 35 45 54
80 | 5 11 16 22 27 33 38 43 54 65
100 | 6 13 19 25 31 38 44 50 63 76
120 | 7 14 21 28 36 43 50 57 70 85
150 | 8 15 25 33 41 50 57 66 83 98
200 | 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 100 120
250 | 12 23 35 46 58 70 80 93 115 140
400 | 16 32 48 63 80 95 110 130 160 190
600 | 20 40 62 83 104 124 145 166 200 250
800 | 25 50 76 100 126 151 176 200 250 300
1000 | 30 60 88 117 146 175 205 235 290 350
------------------------------------------------------
heater wattage required

Example a 200 liter tank in a 20c room holding the water temp
at 25c, a 50w heater is required. left column tank size reads 200.
Top row 5 degrees, reads down to 50.

***********************
Build you own tank at your own risk

tank | length of aquarium
height| 50 60 70 80 90 100 120 150 200
-----------------------------------------------
30 | 6 6 6 6 6 8 8 10 10
40 | 6 6 6 8 8 8 10 10 12
50 | 6 8 8 8 10 10 10 12 15
60 | 8 8 10 10 10 10 12 12 15
70 | 8 10 10 10 12 12 15 15 18
-----------------------------------------------

Determination of glass thickness required for all glass
tank building. All measurements are metric and given
in millimeters.
example: for a tank 100 cm long and 50 cm high 10mm
glass thickness is required minimum.

Don't forget to use a bracing on the top. A complete
frame is recommended. A 1mm spacing placed between
panes allows for expansion and proper fit for silicone
sealing.

 



Source: Sam MacDonald

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